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Contemporary Issues in Travel and Tourism

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Introduction

Contemporary issues means different issues or problems that are faced by people that should be discussed by them to resolve (Shambi, 2011). Nowadays, in the travel and tourism sector has been universalized from different aspects. People are exploring more and more all over the world to be relaxed, for sports, business and medical purposes. As a result, a travel and tourism business has been developed across the globe. Here in this report, the writer will changes of travel and tourism industry and its many contemporary issues in last decades. Ways of managing such changes and developing this sector will be justified with essential data, documents and statistics.

Identify and analyze, the factors that have driven this change and give at least two examples how destinations have been impacted by these changes and issues.

In the travel and tourism sector of the world, a huge change has been occurred because of climate change, inadequate infrastructure and safety and security.

Climate change and its impact

In the travel sector of a country, the impact of climate change firstly visible on the livelihoods of people. It increases taxation and daily needs charges that negatively increases travel costs of tourists from different aspects. Secondly, climate change impacts on the food security (Deuschl, 2011). Because of climate change the habit of production is changed. Salt water intrusion and rise of sea level effect on fisheries and agriculture. Consequently, drought, water shortages, and loss of production become a regular affair that has been seen in the Caribbean region (Blanke and Chiesa, 2007). It also destroys infrastructure with salt soil and water intrusion.

Storms will directly affect critical infrastructure with acid rain. Fourthly, economic and financial hampers become vivid because of cost incensement in the travel and tourism sector (Castellani and Sala, 2009).Since climate change directly increases costs from damage to infrastructure, human settlements, crops etc. and indirectly increases costs from lost earnings from tourism, fisheries or loss of ecosystem services. People lose their intension to make travels in abroad.

Climate change directly impacts on the coastal and marine resources by increasing sea level with coastal flooding, coastal erosion, and natural calamities. As a result, travel and tourism sector is largely affected (D’Amore and Kalifungwa, 2014). Lack of pure water and favorable environment help to find out better water resources for satisfying traveler’s needs. Health condition of tourists can be hampered with adverse situation with different diseases, such as dengue and fever.

Inadequate infrastructure:In a tourist destination, lack of required infrastructure and unavailability proper communication ways like airlines, roads, vehicles largely demotivates people to visit  such places (Boniface, 2009).Particularly people from developed countries expect better habitation facilities, communication system and quick accessibility or transformation one place to another place.

Security and safety:In this sector, a huge can be occurred because of lack of security and safety. In the Middle East, the tourism sector has shown us vivid picture of importance of security and safety. While tourists feel lack of safety and under the threat of terrorism, they are demotivated to travel a country. Increasing tension and hostility impacts adversely on this sector.

Because of being the most expected tourist destinations with its famous tourists spots in London, Edinburgh, Cambridge,Oxford, Scottish Highlands, Manchester, Windsor, Bath, York, Liverpool, Glasgow, Belfast, Skye, Birmingham, Canterbury and Bristol with another remarkable spots of the world, the UK has been experienced a fabulous changes in this last 2 decades its tourism sector that has been impacted with the factors that have been explained above. Climate change is decaying different monuments in these places and tourists are not much more interested to visit there (Schott, 2010). Lack of expected food, pure water and chances of getting sick are not inspiring people to visit such tourist’s spots. Additionally, inadequate development of communication and lack of faster vehicles or domestic air travel opportunities are making traveling time consuming. As a result, people are not attracted with the beauty of such places (Boniface and Cooper, 2012). Increasing criminal activities against the tourists and threat of terrorism are creating lack of security and safety. As a result, people from abroad are not going there (Camilleri, 2018).

It is a news of showing hope that utilization of updated and advance technologies are resolving all of these problems and attracting people to the tourist’s spots of the UK with charming pleasure.

M 1: An effective approach to examine and research to more than one current issue is applied and effective judgement is made using appropriate examples from travel and tourism sector.

According to Shambi (2011), “Advancement of technology and climate change are most two current issues in the travel and tourism sector of UK that are influencing in last two decades.” These issues have been examined with positive and negative impacts.

Positive influences of these issues:Climate change is positively impacting on the tourist destinations of the UK. Because, we know England is a cold and winter based country. The weather conditions of the UK is now warmer and pleasant that promotes tourism in UK’s tourist’sdestination (Alonso Dos Santos, 2014). Since people are getting more time to spend in summer, they are creating more travels in this time across the UK. Technological advancement is enhancing the opportunities of overcoming many lacking including safety and security, development of infrastructure, fastest communication, etc.

Negative influences of these issues: Climate change is decreasing food supply, agricultural production and create salt water intrusion and rise of sea level effect on fisheries and agriculture (Cooper, 2015). As a result,the government increases taxation and daily needs charges that negatively increases travel costs of tourists from different aspects. Storms will directly affect critical infrastructure with acid rain. Fourthly, economic and financial hampers become vivid because of cost incensement in the travel and tourism sector (Briggs, 2018).  Since climate change directly increases costs from damage to infrastructure, human settlements, crops etc. and indirectly increases costs from lost earnings from tourism, fisheries or loss of ecosystem services. People lose their intension to make travels in abroad. Climate change directly impacts on the coastal and marine resources by increasing sea level with coastal flooding, coastal erosion, and natural calamities (Singh, 2008). As a result, travel and tourism sector is largely affected. Abuse of technology is creating bigger and structured crimes against the tourists of the UK. As a result, people are getting demotivated for visiting UK.

Evaluate and discuss the emerging trends that are influencing change in the travel and tourism sector and analyze how these trends affect the chosen destination in terms of tourism product and service offerings such as attractions and accommodations

In recent travel and tourism sector, there are many emerging trends including Lifestyles, branding, food production and supply, technology, legislation and regulations that have been influencing to change that have evaluated in the following-

Lifestyles: In the travel and tourism sector lifestyle of impacts directly from different aspects.Individual travels according to their lifestyles. In this lifestyle, their expectations like favorite or aspired foods, different promotional offers, prices of commodities and attraction for places impacts greatly.

Figure 1: Lifestyle and segmentation Source:(Deuschl, 2011)

In this regards, there three types of people or three generations are very important to remark including Baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964), Generation X (born between 1965 & 1979) and Generation Y (born between 1980 & 1995/2000) because of their different tastes and choices (Ali, 2015). They are creating different types travels based on their choices. In their choices of food trends are also impacting very greatly.Emerging food trends that emphasize foods that are, fresh of local area, ethnic foods with distinctive ingredients, flavors and spices, prepared home meal replacement and food with fusion are very remarkable.

Branding:Different brands that are associated with one or more items in the product line, which is used to identify the source or character of the items related to the travel and tourism also impacts on the change of this sector. It is also an emerging trend in the history of travel and tourism. Such brands directly impact by facilitating memory retrieval, developing positive attitudes and feelings regarding tourists spots (Alonso Dos Santos, 2014).While tourists consider, they are safe and secured under a tourist company. They are more likely to visit places with organizations.

Food production and supply: In the history of travel and tourism, the diversified food production and supply food also largely contributes to attract the tourists (Cooper, 2015). Now it has become an emerging trend to create a huge food production and supply for targeted tourists in the world.

Figure 2: Food production and supply Source: (Blanke and Chiesa, 2007)

As a result, every country who is considering tourism as its source of income is also emphasizing on the development of the food production and supply.

Technology:Now in this 21st century, use of technology is an emerging trend for ensuring all kind of needs of tourist has become considerably accepted by all. As a result, the travel and tourism sector of the UK is also utilizing it (Briggs, 2018).By using technology, travel agencies are providing required information to its targeted customers. Use of Information Communication Technologies / Web 2.0 has reduced labor of people. Safety and security has been increased by using technologies.

Legislation and regulations: Creating traveling friendly legislations and regulations is now an emerging trend in the travel and tourism sector.Non-smoking legislation in Europe and Smoking (Public Health) Ordinance (Hong Kong) has increased tourists attraction in these countries with favorable and healthy environment.Smoke-free restaurants and bars reduce exposure to tobacco smoke toxins among hospitality workers and patrons. Providing required support with minimum payment and its related legislations have developed the tourism sector in last decades (Camilleri, 2018).

How these trends affect the chosen destination in terms of tourism product and service offerings

The travel and tourism sector of country is largely impacted by these emerging trends. Different travel agencies and governments are prioritizing these trends because of their direct impacts. For instance, by prioritizing lifestyle according to their expectations like favorite or aspired foods, different promotional offers, prices of commodities, they are enchanting people to their countries to visit. In the UK, agencies divides people into three generations including Baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964), Generation X (born between 1965 & 1979) and Generation Y (born between 1980 & 1995/2000) for ensuring better services for inspiring their tourist decisions in the UK as their destinations. The UK has already created many international brands that are contributing to increase customers. Such brands directly impact by facilitating required services like attractions and accommodations (Shambi, 2011). As a result, people are getting more involved with the services of such brands. Creating effective food production and supply chain is also contributing to the history of travel and tourism with diversified food production and supply of food by influencing travelers to create positive decisions regarding theirtourist’s spots. The best use of technology has become another most important emerging trend in this decades that is contributing to the attractions and accommodations with expected services (Deuschl, 2011).Creating traveling friendly legislations and regulations is now an emerging trend in the travel and tourism sector. Smoke-free restaurants and bars reduce exposure to tobacco smoke toxins among hospitality workers and patrons. Providing required support with minimum payment and its related legislations have developed the tourism sector in last decades (Blanke and Chiesa, 2007).

Analyze how those businesses have been impacted and discuss what would you recommend to them to do in the future in order to cope with the consequences of business failures to respond to the changing market trends

In the business activities of a travel and tourism companies like the International Airlines Group differenceconsequencesof business failures are seen because of failing to cope with changing market trends. Here some consequences has been outlined in the following-

  • Huge losses can be occurred
  • Cancelation of different plans
  • Brand image can be shattered
  • Reputation of an organization can be damaged
  • Competitors will go ahead
  • Financial loses can be happened
  • Lose of targeted market
  • Customers dissatisfaction
  • Lack of market share and eventual loss of money from the on the business front.

After all it will eventually reduce the confidence of the social as well as other factors on the business that might lead to extinction of an organization.

Recommendation to do

In such a situation, a travel and tourism organization should be more careful regarding handling situation for achieving business goals and objectives (Schott, 2010).It should implement that has been recommended in the following-

Assessing changes:

Measuring the amount of changes is the first and foremost duty of the management of an organization like the International Airlines Group. It will help the management to create an effective evaluation of changes. According to Castellani and Sala (2009), “An organization should evaluate gradual changes of market trends for saving it from huge lose for providing required supports.”

Creating Plan:

Secondly, the management of the company should create effective plans for achieving organizational goals and adapt with changed situations. If some failures in the business are occurred, emergency supports should be provided according to the severe of problems.

Following effective strategy:

In such a situation, the management of the International Airlines Group must be patients and work according to effective strategies (Alonso Dos Santos, 2014).They should work slowly and wisely for overcoming a failure situation that will increase the productivity and performances of the employees.

Training and seminars:

Sometimes, middle and staffs level cannot realize the changes of an organization. In this periods, lack of proper knowledge to their doings hampers the productivity and performances (Briggs, 2018). As a result, the destruction of a company is accelerated. So, the management of the International Airlines Group should provide required training to its staffs for enabling them to understand changes and work according to changes for ensuring proper adaptations.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is clear to us that in the travel and tourism sector has been universalized from different aspects. But contemporary issues are hampering its advancement and progress. People are exploring more and more all over the world to be relaxed, for sports, business and medical purposes. They should be ensured with proper services by resolving these issues. So that the travel and tourism industry can bedeveloped across the globe with proper contentment. In this regards, changes in travel and tourism industry and its many contemporary issues in last decades. Ways of managing such changes and developing this sector will be justified with essential data, documents and statistics.

 

References

Ali, A. (2015). Travel and tourism management.

Alonso Dos Santos, M. (2014). Strategies in sports marketing.

Blanke, J. and Chiesa, T. (2007). The travel & tourism competitiveness report 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum.

Boniface, B. (2009). Worldwide Destinations and Companion Book of Cases. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Boniface, B. and Cooper, C. (2012). Worldwide destinations. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledgejavascript:void(0).

Briggs, S. (2018). Successful tourism marketing. London: Kogan Page.

Camilleri, M. (2018). Travel Marketing, Tourism Economics and the Airline Product. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Castellani, V. and Sala, S. (2009). Sustainable tourism as a factor of local development. Trento: Tangram edizioniscientifiche.

Cooper, M. (2015). Current issues and emerging trends in medical tourism. Hershey, Pa: Medical Information Science Reference.

D’Amore, L. and Kalifungwa, P. (2014). Meeting the challenges of climate change to tourism.

Deuschl, D. (2011). Travel and tourism public relations. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Schott, C. (2010). Tourism and the implications of climate change. Bingley: Emerald.

Shambi, J. (2011). Analysis of and Recommendations for Kenya’s Tourism Sector.

Singh, L. (2008). Fundamental of tourism and travel. Delhi: Isha Books.

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