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COVID-19 Vaccines Development Process

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How COVID-19 Vaccines were Developed and Processed?

New products development means creativity in the competitive market that facilitates more productivity and profitability. Developing new pharmaceutical products is quite different in the case of COVID 19. In contrast, millions of people died due to pandemic and overacting spread out virus that impacts on the whole world. Since December 2019, the world has experienced severely death, loss of life, breakdown of the economy, and lockdown at home with the isolation of millions of people (Forman et al., 2021). National borders were restricted and closed down due to the breakout of pandemic COVID -19. Vaccination has revolutionized human ability to develop health and saves human life through controlling eliminating the life-killing disease. Millions of people are the target of COVID 19, so the first challenge of new pharmaceutical products development (vaccine development) was the prime challenge to virologists (Haque & Pant, 2020).

According to IFPMA (2022), a vaccination program generally takes an average of 10 to 15 years. At the beginning of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), Pfizer firstly introduced the emergency vaccine just after the one year of pandemic. According to Pfizer (2022), the primary stage is developing new vaccines for laboratory research that takes 2 to 5 years. The second stage is preclinical, and the data analysis takes around two years. The 3rd step of vaccine development is clinical, whereas in three phases, in phase 1, less than 100 volunteers are the candidate for vaccines. The second phase takes around 2 to 3yars to analyze safe and immunogenicity, and final phase, 3 thousand people are tested. Then need regulatory review and approval with licensing of new pharmaceutical products (Pfizer, 2022). Such significant losses of life give straightforward guidelines and instruction for future pharmaceutical products development.

Worldwide collaboration reduced the complexity of preparing in a short time. In the clinical trial, data has to monitor and approved and authorized, but in the case of COVID, this was not happened (IFPMA, 2022). Moreover, authorization is done before the trial’s safety monitoring of tens of thousands of participants. Developing any vaccination for diseases and viruses has to need more funds and face unprecedented challenges. In such a crucial situation, there is a need to combine the whole task to develop and monitor such new products development (Mohamed et al., 2022).

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Developing new products in the pharmaceutical industry is challenging due to available resources and experts. Therefore, this process needs to combine the formulation and analytical advancement with many experienced scientists. Moreover, the process combines technological integration manufacturing with quality assurance (Forman et al., 2021).

New mutations or variants with super speed, more transmissible, and dangerous infectious have forced the virologist to observe the virus in the lab. When new pharmaceutical products are developed, scientists keep in mind the effectiveness of vaccination for an extended period. In the case of measles, there is no need to change the vaccine. Every year, the WHO has to coordinate the influenza virus vaccine. Based on the circulating strains, which developed the vaccination of influenza virus, and now for SARS-CoV-2, the stakeholder of health institutions is also observed experiencing new ideas and learning. A couple of vaccines has been developed and successfully vaccinated throughout the world. So, now the challenges of taking protection for the longevity of this vaccination. Depending on the antibodies, immune responses, and cell mediation, a couple of strains changes will be applied and developed to protect against such quick death and devastating health hazards (World Health Organization, 2021). In the case of pandemics each year, thousands of people are dying without activating and implying any vaccine. Each pharmaceutical company has managed funds in research and development where they could invest their fund and energy in discovering new things or new vaccines that could save thousands of lives.

To reduce the potential host of virus, isolation, quarantining, tracking, physical and social distance, using a mask, and washing hands are supportive stems to minimize the risk of being affected (World Health Organization, 2021). Moreover, skipping closed environment, respiratory, and placing at home can be the possible solution of spread out of SARS-CoV-2.

According to Mohamed et al. (2022), it is observed that in the pandemic world, new variants and previous variants of diseases and viruses come by and also behave the same way.To stop spreading out of virus and protecting humans through vaccination are done based on the straits. Reducing the transmission is more effective than vaccination in a short time. The development of vaccination to reach the people has long phases and development stages. Developing a new vaccine is challenging in all phases as complexity and challenges are more than generic development of medicine (World Health Organization, 2021).

In developing, the Oxford AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, the initial challenging aspects are to get some money for the vaccination program and opportunities for applying funds. Then the clinical trials expanding vaccination programs with manufacturing are also really challenging. Therefore, production, clinical trials, phase three trial, and vaccination license from WHO all need more safety and trust with the effective management of unpredicted challenges.

Future development and procurement of vaccination programs can be faster with the use of advanced technology. Technology advancements have reduced the task of developing a vaccine for COVID-19 by Oxford AstraZeneca. In the case of the development of RNA (mRNA) vaccine development has become easier than helping to trigger human health to more immune system response (cdc.gov, 2022). More trusted protection against diseases through RNA (mRNA) could be more impressive using advanced technology. RNA (mRNA) vaccines of Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson’s are developed through technology. So, in the future, the development of the vaccination may be faster through this lab technology (cdc.gov, 2022).

In developing the COVID 19 vaccine, a couple of pharmaceutical companies have successfully developed their vaccine (Elizabeth Blackwell Institute, 2022). In the future, there is no need to take the same overlapping task to develop the vaccination programs as hundreds of world pharmaceutical have invested their money and time in developing such COVID 19 vaccine.

Moreover, investing more money can be a source of quickly moving to develop such vaccination. In this regard, the donator and investor need to move forward. Better access and safe vaccination can solve the crucial time of COVID 19 (Elizabeth Blackwell Institute, 2022). So, many vaccinations from different pharmaceuticals companies are overlapping the task of developing and introducing new vaccines. Future further development in vaccination programs can be transmitted through creating a new team to develop the vaccine. It would be helpful for scientists to make more quick decisions in the development and marketing for protecting humans from such pandemics (Elizabeth Blackwell Institute, 2022). The sorting task of the pharmaceutical companies through coordination of World Health Organization (WHO) would be more fruitful to manage sufficient funds and quick decisions.

With the lot of changes and new variants of COVID have bewildered the virologist in recent times. The outbreak of N501Y mutation in the UK and South Africa with the rapid widespread into other countries are concerning issue. With the bitter experience of illness and higher death rates, scientists observe and gather new knowledge and information on SARS-CoV-2 (World Health Organization, 2021).

Through the monitoring of WHO, pharmaceutical companies and institutions may involve them by prioritizing tasks simultaneously. For example, through teamwork, every team can work on developing other vaccine programs. So, all institutions working on the same project will not reduce time and money in the future.

Reference

cdc.gov. 2022. Understanding mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines. [online] Available at: <https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/mrna.html> [Accessed 19 March 2022].

Elizabeth Blackwell Institute, 2022. EBI Public Lecture 2021 – Development of the Oxford AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, Dame Sarah Gilbert. Available at: <https://youtu.be/pSwcUC3VK5Y> [Accessed 20 March 2022].

Forman, R., Shah, S., Jeurissen, P., Jit, M. and Mossialos, E., 2021. COVID-19 vaccine challenges: What have we learned so far and what remains to be done?. Health Policy125(5), pp.553-567.

Haque, A. and Pant, A.B., 2020. Efforts at COVID-19 vaccine development: challenges and successes. Vaccines8(4), p.739.

IFPMA, 2022. The complex journey of a vaccine: the steps behind developing a new vaccine. [ebook] International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations. Available at: <https://www.ifpma.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/IFPMA-ComplexJourney-2019_FINAL.pdf> [Accessed 20 March 2022].

Mohamed, K., Rzymski, P., Islam, M.S., Makuku, R., Mushtaq, A., Khan, A., Ivanovska, M., Makka, S.A., Hashem, F., Marquez, L. and Cseprekal, O., 2022. COVID‐19 vaccinations: The unknowns, challenges, and hopes. Journal of medical virology94(4), pp.1336-1349.

Pfizer, 2022. Mission Possible: The Race for a Vaccine. Available at: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbZUZ9JYNBE> [Accessed 21 March 2022].

World Health Organization, 2021. Episode #20 – COVID-19 – Variants & Vaccines. [podcast] COVID-19: Variants & Vaccines. Available at: <https://html5-player.libsyn.com/embed/episode/id/17461115> [Accessed 20 March 2022].

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