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Orientation for Success in Higher Education

Introduction

Reflective learning indicates the learning outcomes in which field a student or learner had learned, gathered knowledge and that can be used in the future. Reflecting on learning is also the method of justifying any person’s learning outcomes by testing learning major areas. Reflective learning has almost five components that are responding to the learning area, reporting documents and information accurately, relating among learning areas, the reasoning of learning, and reconstructing the learning field. This paper will demonstrate the key points to the road to success in higher education.

In business and management discipline, a reflective learning approach is very important as these sectors are quality-based and practical areas of professional career. Using feedback and feedforward is important to improve future formative and summative work. This essay will define all of these areas including reflective learning as well as reflection model, a short statement of a reflective approach to provide feedback and feed-forward, and the method of improving formative and summative assessments.

Gibb’s Reflective Model

The reflection and reflective approach have some specific models and methods. Among the methods, Gibbs’s reflective method is the most influential method that demonstrates learning structure and describes learning experiences. Gibbs’s method of reflective and reflection is a cycle method that was introduced by G Gibbs in 1988 to demonstrate learning feedback and experiences. Gibbs’s method consisted of six major and unique steps that are the short description of learning and experiences.

Stages of the Model

There are some parts of the description stage, such as a relevant learning assessment of a group. The second stage of the Gibbs model is feelings of particular experiences and thoughts, for example, for a particular learning area how the condition was before gaining the learning outcomes and after learning and how other people consider that condition.

The third stage of the model is to evaluate the experiences whether the experience is good or bad. In this stage, it is very important to be veridical as well as neutral as much as possible as it is the justifying the situation good or bad. For example, when a group of people wanted to finish a task in time and they divided task among group members to finish properly but if any member of the group didn’t complete their work. In this case, the whole group may be face problems as the task should have done in time. The fourth stage of the model is to analyze the experiences of making an ultimate feeling of any condition.

The fifth stage of the model is to conclude the learning experiences and precise the other ways of learning. Here some questions may arise, such as from the previous condition what things have learned by the group members, was the situation better or worse and how the situation could have done better than the result, and what skills have gathered by the group member by doing the task. The last stage of the model shows a complete action plan of learning and a plan of doing the same task, and how can improve the learning ways.

The Feedforward and Feedback

Feedforward also refers to the strategy of doing any task or a strategy of learning ways. Feedforward is the instruction of doing any task in the future, such as to give feed forward to a student to write a paragraph and grading before finishing the task by evaluating the existing capabilities of the student. The feedforward has almost six parts including, regenerating capabilities to do tasks faultless and helps to improve professional and personal career, expanding the possibility of doing the task properly. Feedforward focuses on a particular thing than many things, feed-forward emphasizes authenticity to promote the situation.

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Feedback shows the gaps, positivity, as well as real condition of previous learning. Feedback also refers to the specific and constructive assessment of any work. It includes assignments, writing essays, class notes, or anything related to a Lerner. The feedback nature of Gibbs’s reflective learning model is very influential for the students as well as for the learner. By following the six stages of the model a student can be able to improve performance.

The summative assessment focuses on which thing a student has learned through his learning journey. And the formative assessment indicates the policy or the system of learning. And these two assessment processes are stand-in reverse each other. Summative assessment is the final assessment of any task or assignment, such as final report files or final examination. Feedback and feedforward are two important terms for evaluating any situation of a person, group, or any particular learning experience. Feedback concentrates on a person’s present redaction or performance while feedforward is the reverse of feedback.

Formative Assessment

Formative assessment can be described as a short-term assessment process. Such as if a semester of a university is six months in length then after every week. And the final assessment indicates the summative assessment. The reflective approach in summative and formative assessment means the ways of giving feedback in the very early stage. The feedback in the early stage is very important as well as effective than the delayed feedback.

When early feedback is given to a person or a student, and then he will be able to correct his mistakes by improving his condition. Feedback may be formal and informal as well. Feedback shows a person’s current condition towards the aim and also shows if he is on the right path or wrong path. When a student will be in the way of learning stage, there can be monitored his performance. Formative assessment helps a student to correct his mistakes.

Summative Assessment

In summative assessment, the term feedback is not applicable as feedback uses in the short-term assessment process. When a student gets feedback in formative assessment to improve his errors then he can improve his errors. And the improvement of formative assessment will develop his summative assessment. So it is possible to say that, early feedback in formative assessment is very important and effective for a student to improve his situation. And the delay feedback is comparatively lesser effective than early feedback.

In delay feedback, a student gets minimum time to improve his situation. There are some approaches to describe the business and management discipline. Feedback is also very effective for a student to overcome the errors that a student has already done in previous lessons. Early feedback is more effective than delayed feedback. Formative assessment is a part of summative assessment. And in the formative assessment process, a student gets time to improve his skills by understanding his current situation.

Conclusion

Summative assessment is the final assessment. And after summative assessment, a student only gets feedback, but will not get a chance to make improvements. Gibbs’s reflective method is also familiar as the way of proving experiences. The method of Gibbs is a very effective pathway of evaluating experiences. To understand the reflective approach effectively, the cycle model by G Gibbs is very helpful for a student. By applying the model a student can improve the learning situation. And also can take proper experiences to do better to succeed in higher education.

Written by: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

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