Uses of the drug are constantly increasing in different countries of the world. Uses of the drug in the prison cell is also alarming. In Norway, data show that there are approximately 50% prisoner uses different types of drug in the prison cell. Having such serious drug problems is creating more mental and physical health problem. In the prison setting, using rates of the drug need to minimise to develop the health condition of the prisoner. A most common form of drug including cannabis, cocaine and heroin have changed the current drug-taking patterns. Moreover, before imprisonment, there are used different types of drug (Sahu & Sahu, 2012). The drivers which impact on taking the drug in the prisoner cell derives a complex situation, mover to control this situation the strategies to control on using the drug should have to develop. Current strategies to control on using the drug in the prison need more attention to control public health hazards. Moreover, the pattern of drug-taking has created a more negative impact on public health issues (Kanayama et al., 2012). Drugs are used in different ways, where the prison staff and prisoner are using them. In this paper, the author will focus on the interrelationship between drug and crime by focusing on the drug and prisoners behaviours. The author will develop a conclusion on the treatment and rehabilitation of the prisoner. In recent years, prison-based drug rehabilitation programs and initiative have increased due to the consciousness and handling of the government.
Relationship between drugs and prison
Substance abuse has a serious consequence on the physical, psychological, pharmacological, legal and social contexts.
There has a strong background and long history of drug and crime. Abuses of drug promote crime in society. Committing a crime is subconsciously a type of mental disorder that promotes substances abuses in society. The report shows that young offenders use these types of drugs to pass their times. Using cannabis, heroin and tranquilisers to adjust to the environment in the prisoner’s cell. To alleviate everyday pain in the prison, prisoner uses these drugs. So, in short, the main thinking of the prisoners is that to alleviate the mental pressure prisoners uses drugs.
85% of the prisoner have direct contact with substances abuses, this has a direct connection with the increase of crime in society. The criminals in society abuse the power, they use the drug and other types of criminal activities. The relationship between the drug and crime is dependable each other. Drug abuser commits a crime for manging the drug. The internal conflict between the drug abuser promotes the conflict and such case cause even death. Moreover, such a criminal is going to jail or prison. Therefore, the criminal abuses drug while committing a crime in society. Another important impact of drug abuse is drug trafficking. In 2010, data show that about 70% of male prisoner uses the drug in staying in the prisoner cell (Kanayama et al., 2012). The interrelation between the drug and prison is that drug and alcohol help to occur aggressive crime. Those who are arrested, most them abuses the drug. The drug is abused by the addicted prisoners. Iranian crack, opium syrup, methamphetamine, heroin, psychotropic pills and cannabis are the most used drug by the prisoners. While increasing the drug abuse, the rates of committing crimes also increased. Moreover, addict commits crimes to acquire and manage drug by threatening and forcing from people. Substance abuser does not have a proper source of income, they commit a crime and manages money for buying drug. As a result, there have increased rate f drug smuggling, theft and prostitution in society. Thus, the repetition of the cycle of people constant increasing in society. Drug abuser arrested in jail or prison which promotes the situation of drug-taking in a different prison in the UK. The emotional issues impact the behaviour patterns of the prisoner and therefore this emotional setting motivates to take more drug in the prison. Statistics show that the most commonly used form of the drug in England is Cannabis and heroin (Kanayama et al., 2012). It is accepted to the prisoner that, to remove and relieve the stress, and for relaxation, this cannabis and heroin are taken by prisoners. To cope up with the current mental complexities and hardship of imprisonment prisoner take the drug. So, this is the process of self-medication to ensure the proper mental relaxation and freshness.
To relieve boredom and relaxation, drugs are used in the prisoners. Thus, the enjoyment of the comes from the cannabis and heroin to the prisoner’s cell.
What treatment approaches are being applied or could be used within the prison system?
Psychological problems contribute to drug abuse for the prisoners. Substances abuse have created the different types of problems including the difficulties with family members to adjust and cope up, maintain long term relationship, phycological and mental problems and disorder and managing the difficulties of anger and stress (Messina et al., 2010). Thus, the chronic problems have created more complexity in the self-esteem, depression life relied on the expectation to the prisoners. There are different types of strategies for substance abuse treatment for prisoners. Some of these strategies are program including public participation and emphasizing personal accountability to the family and society. Moreover, the training and raising the consciousness to solve the problems of the criminal things. In the recovery process treatment approach for the substance abuser in the prisoners there need to ensure the psychological functioning. In prison settings, drug abuse counsellors should have to focus on the different types of basic needs and give importance to the feeling and emotions of prisoners (Enggist et al., 2014).
Addressing the basic needs-
Based on the legal status, age, gender, education and orientation of the prisoners determine the thinking and personal emotion of the offenders. Jail or prison experience also determine the personal thinking of the offender (Enggist et al., 2014). So, the counsellor should focus on the basic needs of the prisoner. Thereafter solving this common problem related to the basic need of the prisoners, there is easier to rehabilitate the prisoners. For this case, there have to ensure detoxication treatment in the prison or jail, better health treatment, and legal assistant to the prisoner. Moreover, there have to ensure a family-related service to the prison system. The relative will have to visit the prisoners. There need to ensure reunification of the family members to the prisoners. Moreover, the prisoner needs to develop the skills development program and employment facilities. Then treatment in the prison setting can develop the condition of the prisoner (Sarchiapone et al., 2009).
Addressing the criminality-
There needs to address the criminality and the changing behaviour of the prisoner settings. The counsellor should have to focus on the behavioural pattern of the prisoners. The criminal justice system has to maintain the code of ethics for the treatment of the prisoners. Prisoner environment needs to find the criminal thinking. Thus, the treatment to the prisoner setting can address the solution to the prisoners. Different types of personal behaviours including impulse control, troubling management to negative emotion and self-management have to resolve. Criminal lifestyles provoke criminality which stimulates to take the drug in the prisoner system (Greenberg & Rosenheck, 2008).
Solving anger and hostility-
It is difficult to handle the anger and hostility of the prisoner than the common people. As the highest anti-social personality creates more disorder and criminal behaviour in society, so the counsellor should have to ensure the proper treatment through focusing on the anger and hostility (Kanayama et al., 2012). The anger and hostility behaviours change for different reasons as unfair treatment and lack of recognition to the prisoner system. Moreover, it is more complex to address the solving anger and hostility in the prison system as the continuous changing behaviour of the offenders. Therefore, the offender who uses the substance and got jail or prison feel like they are more isolated from society. So, counsellors should have to give attention to the feeling of the prisoner who abuses substances. The feeling of the client has to give more focusing point by the counsellor of the offenders (Spelman, 2008).
It is important to find out the embarrassment and guilt feeling of the employees. to find out the sources of anger and hostility there have ensured by the counsellors. It is also important to give an understanding of the goals after staying out of jail or prison. Thus, the recognition of the personal feeling of anger, emotion and hostility may help to solve the prisoner environment (Cheliotis, 2010).
Solving the identity issues-
Addressing the identity issues is the most important approach to give treatment to the prisoner who abuses the substance. As through the identity changes of the prisoner they use the drug, so raising the inner personal identity is important. From the family and social setting, there have to raise the consciousness of the people in the prison system. Moreover, there have to manage a social and personal stigma that demotivate the prisoner to back in a fair life (Neminski, 2014).
Addressing the denial-
From the practical personal negative experiences of denial, people change their mind to take the substances. This habit also exists in the prisoner cell (Nellis, 2016). So, the treatment approach of the prisoner who abuses substance should have to focus on denial. the alcohol addiction may be reduced by the initiative and program by counsels. Past negative dental experience can lead to this system, so in the prisoner system, there have to find a real cause of the individuals to take the drug in jail or prisoners (Kanayama et al., 2012).
Addressing the Resistance-
Treatment approaches may be activated by understanding the impact of resistances. for example, a counsellor may give the importance of freedom from prison and not taking the substances. Substance abuse treatment in jail or prison could be more effective by the motivation on giving the importance of the future life. Counsellors careful attention to developing the sense of the consequence of substance abuses in jail may develop the condition of prisoners (Neminski, 2014).
Addressing the personal and social stigma-
Individual and his surrounding social environment stigma is another major consideration for the offender. Primarily personal and social stigma feels more guilt and shame to the prisoner. In this case, better treatment to the prisoner by giving motivation and inspiration can change the behavioural pattern to take the substance abuses in the prison settings. Facilitating treatment by removing the exaggerated social stigma may ensure the proper treatment to the prisoner settings. Personal feeling of shame can develop the condition of the prisoner settings. Making amen to the previous working can motivate the prisoner to a healthy life. Taking about the personal feeling of shame and social stigma can recover the problems of the prisoner settings (Sahu & Sahu, 2012).
Addressing personal boundaries-
For the development of the condition of the prisoner not to take the drug in prison, establishing personal boundaries helpful. Through the motivation of the of a prisoner by developing the phycological development can improve the condition of the prisoner settings. This psychotherapy allies with the family relative and others. Moreover, the boundaries between the staff and prisoner are significant for psychological development (Alterman, 2014).
Ensuring therapeutic alliance-
It is important to create a therapeutic alliance in the prisoner’s settings. There have to facilitate the psychological development of the prisoners (Enggist et al., 2014). Moreover, staff ability, their experiment and skills develop the condition of the prisoner settings. Community supervision thus develops the psychological setting of the prisoners. Prisoner needs to better engagement with the others and supervision by the staff can develop the condition of prisoner system. In the therapeutic process, staff are important by facilitating more scope and privileges for the prisoners (VanDeMark, 2017).
In this therapeutic process, there have to avoid a personalizing situation, it is important to give the priorities to the consequences on the prisoner behaviours. Counsellors should have to develop a sense of the prisoner culture, cultural differences make the attitude in doing such criminal mind and taking the drug in the prison cell. One should focus on the prisoner to develop the control model on the behaviours (Baydala et al., 2010).
Relationship with the staffs of the prison quite important to distinguish to develop the internal relationship with the prisoners. Prison staffs help to correction of the prisoner and motivate not to take drug and abuse substances in the prison. In the process of the treatment to the prisoner, the probation officer or the staffs have the extensive to in the process of correction. In the cross-training process, this probation officer or staffs have to maintain confidentiality to develop the condition of prisoners (Cheliotis, 2010).
Ensuring proper treatment in the stages of changes-
In the stage of recovery the behaviour of the offender change based on the behaviour and situation. So, the treatment strategies of the recovery process should have to design on the behavioural patterns of the prisoners. In the contemplation period prisoner are unaware of the substance-abusing problem and, in the contemplation, period prisoners are aware of the abuse of substances problems both physically and mentally. The prisoner decides to change the habit of taking the drug in the preparation period, the action is taken to change the behaviour. In handling such prisoner problems in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stage the counsellor has to spend more time (VanDeMark, 2017).
Programs component and strategies
Substance abuse treatment to the prisoner there have some strategies by taking the different initiative and programs for by the different parties related to the prisoners.
Engagement-the first stage in the treatment process of the identification of the substance abusers started through the arrest and incarceration process. In this step, the psychological support and offenders abuse treatment starts in the prison or jail (Spelman, 2008). In jail or prison, the supervision program can develop to changes the behaviour of the prisoners. In the supervision problems, there is developed a proper relationship to the prisoner to raise his/her consciousness. Substance abuse problems create a serious mental and physical health condition that needs to motivate the prison to take off and abstain from taking these alcohols in the prison (Mayhew & Binny, 2011). Frequently motivational treatment can easily recover the prisoner substance abusers problems. First, there have to remove a connection with the family relative and members including children and wife. In the management of the relationship in such a case, there have to focus on a quick response to the prisoner’s behaviours. Substance abuse treatment staff have to create more social engagement to motive the prisoner from recovering from the abused drug in jail (Waldron & Turner, 2008).
Enhancing motivation can develop the situation of the prisoner in every step prisoners staff ensure the necessary treatment to the prisoners. Those who have taken the treatment previously and lever the treatment of substance abuses. The staffs could change the behaviour by connecting the pattern of the behavioural change.
Effective management of coercion program-
Coercion helps to develop the substance uses condition outside the jail or prison, this promotes the condition of mental and physical health of the offenders whom community supervision is done as a part of treatment (Bryson et al., 2008). In this process, for example, a driver has to keep the licence, this psychoeducation class influenced the driver. There is a similarity between the drive and a substance abuser. In the different palaces of the USA, there is activated this law (Greenberg & Rosenheck, 2008).
retention plays an important role in the behaviours of the substance uses. There is seen an important difference in the manner and behaviour of the cocaine-dependent (Davis, 2011). Under criminal justice, the retention may ensure the better developing condition of the prisoner. The level of anxiety and depression is relatively more high level among the dropout treatment of substance user. The lower level of self-efficacy, unemployment, depression and mental pressure creates more addiction to the drug and alcohol. Retention form drug and alcohol develop the sense of abstaining from such illegal activity in the prison (Baydala et al., 2010). A lifestyle of the criminal mind is more possessed with the relatively weak personality on taking substance abuses in the prison. Higher social conformity and diversionary treatment to the substant abuser in prison can change the mental condition. Studies show that some changes in the treatment of the substance abuser in the prison can develop the condition through the developing positive network.
Mental health illness may have a negative impact on the retention treatment. Incentive and sanction may have a positive impact on the treatment of the substant abuser in the prison. In the treatment process, incentive motivates the drug abuser in prison to develop peaceful life. This strategy works on the criminal thinking of the people. Changes in the behaviour and personal individual identity may be developed by the environment of the substance abuser in the prison. Here the following steps may develop the condition of such behaviour (Rafter, 2017).
- The sanction should have to apply rapidly to develop the condition of the substance abuser in prison.
- There have to give importance on the incentive over sanctions.
- Quick implementation of sanction may develop the changes in behavioural pattern.
- There will have to ensure the creativity of sanction and incentive.
- Both the treatment staff and criminal justice staff should have to work collaborate in the prison system (Baydala et al., 2010).
Prosocial activity can develop the condition of the prison, there have to keep busy the prisoners, in treating and doing the positive activity, social engagement with the people and high positive treatment can develop the situation of prisoners. Removing the antisocial personality, mental disorder and complexity (Sarchiapone et al., 2009), there has an immense impact on prosocial activity. Through positive social activity, treatment progress is easier in the prisoner system. It helps to abstain from anti-social activity and anti-social thinking. the prisoner will have to keep busy in the positive thinking and well-mannered mental development (Bryson et al., 2008).
Staff modelling accountability-
There has an immense impact on the activity and steps by the staff in the prison, have sensitive power on the changing behaviour of prisoners. Staffs personal accountability develop the whole environment in prison. Modest staff behaviour impact on the changing of prison mind. To hold the standard behaviour staff, have a serious impact on the criminal justice clients Kasunic & Lee, 2014).
Peer support and feedback-
Peer has more opportunities to observe the behaviour of the prisoner. Another prisoner may have more opportunity than the staffs. To take more immediate feedback from the client the peer is more helpful and effective ways (Jewkes et al., 2011). Peer support give a potential impact on changing the mind of the prisoner. In their community, the support by peer is more effective in the changes of the behaviours. Positive thinking and abstain from anti-social activity peer support is the most effective way (Enggist et al., 2014).
Self-management and efficacy-
In the time of preventing and recovery planning in the prisoner system, personal changes occur in the proper management. A systematic approach is done to the proper development of the mental and physical health of the prisoners. There are several approaches to the development of the prevention to the prisoners which have given below-
Relapse prevention is an important tool for community supervision. Self-management training to the recovery system, this approach helps to overcome the complexities of the prisoner’s system. In this case probation officer path an important role to manage the information about the prisoners (Baydala et al., 2010).
Relapse prevention help to take responsibility for oneself, it helps to demotivate the prisoner to blame others. Self-management helps to take the pure responsibility through the proper self-efficacy development. In the recovery plan, self-management promotes the prisoner to manage and control the situation (Messina et al., 2010).
Relapse prevention is easier to communicate with others in the prisoner system. In the different form of maintaining the relationship of long term in the prisoner system this relapse prevention is helpful for the prisoners Kasunic & Lee, 2014).
The spiritual approach is the combination of self-management and religious combination of effort to the proper development of the prisoner system. Thorough special religious activity there is isolated such negative activity from the personal and social life. Especially in the prisoner system religious approach motivate people to think good things. Spiritual issues ensure the proper counselling through religious activity (Hanson et al., 2011). Spiritual and religious function develop the inner sight of the individual to become a complete man coded with religious values. For example, if a Muslim addicted and sentenced to prison, so the Islamic religious values demotivate the individual abstaining from the substances abuses. If there are given the opportunities to develop spiritual growth and function in the prisoner system, there will be developed the personal life of the people. Positive ritual activities are more positive for the people. So there need to promote religious and spiritual practices in the prisoner’s system. Through the proper meditation in the prisoner system, there may be developed the function of personal life (Baydala et al., 2010).
Through meditation, an individual can develop his thinking and may be relaxed and remove from anxiety. Mediation has a silent reflection on the personal life of prisoners. Substance abuses and moral degradation all sort of thing could be changed by proper mediation. To promote the personal life, meditation can develop the lifestyle and also have an immense impact on the life settings. So there need to encourage spiritual and religious practices among the prisoners. Belief and faith can change the life of people and alleviate the personal life of the prisoners (Zarshenas et al., 2007).
Through ritual and spiritual ceremonies, a prisoner can remove the anxiety and mental complexity. Through prayer, mediation and reflection a prisoner can change the whole settings and think of personal life.
Recommendation and Conclusion
Based on the discussion above mentioned, the following recommendations can change the prisoner system and personal life of prisoners (Phillips, 2010).
Appropriate peer or staff role has an immense impact on the personal thinking of the prisoners. So, for better working in the personal life, there have to ensure better circumstance of the prisoner’s environments. Every prisoner has certain life settings and special case, so the counsellor should focus on the basic need of the prisoners. After analysing the personal settings of prisoners, there have to ensure to formulate a new strategy for the prisoners (Cullen et al., 2011). To overcome social and personal stigma prisoner need proper learning about things. This can be more forceful to change the mindset of the prisoners. The treatment program has to develop based on personal specific needs. Prisoner needs proper support and appropriate formula to develop the personal life. Every prisoner needs proper mental support from the staff and proper guideline can change the prisoner’s mindsets (Baydala et al., 2010). Based on the Past remorse and bad experience, there have to ensure treatment to the prisoners. Moreover, the internal motivation can develop the mind of a prisoner from substance abuses in the prisoner settings. There have to create a line of relative and family relationship with the prisoner to abstain from the drug in prison. Motivation is such a powerful tool that remove the stress and anxiety of the prisoners (Garcia-Guasch et al., 2012). Substance abuse treatment by focusing on the personal case, staff and the authority have to respond quickly to solve the personal case of the prisoners. Through the interview of the prisoner, there may be developing a model of proper treatment in the prisoner’s system. The most important thing is that there have to ensure proper moral and spiritual development of the prisoners. The probation of correction staff has to give more importance to identifying the personal lacking which makes more stress of prisoner to abuse drug. So, in the treatment program of the substance abuser, there need to develop the mind through cross-training (Kemp, 2016).
Alterman, A., (2014). Substance abuse and psychopathology. Springer.
Baydala, L., Canadian Paediatric Society and First Nations, Inuit and Métis Health Committee, (2010). Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics & child health, 15(7), pp.443-448.
Bindler, A. and Hjalmarsson, R., (2017). Prisons, recidivism and the age–crime profile. Economics Letters, 152, pp.46-49.
Bryson, E.O., Silverstein, J.H., Warner, D.S. and Warner, M.A., (2008). Addiction and substance abuse in anesthesiology. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 109(5), pp.905-917.
Cheliotis, L.K., (2010). The ambivalent consequences of visibility: Crime and prisons in the mass media. Crime, Media, Culture, 6(2), pp.169-184.
Cullen, F.T., Jonson, C.L. and Nagin, D.S., (2011). Prisons do not reduce recidivism: The high cost of ignoring science. The Prison Journal, 91(3_suppl), pp.48S-65S.
Davis, A.Y., (2011). Are prisons obsolete?. Seven Stories Press.
Enggist, S., Møller, L., Galea, G. and Udesen, C., (2014). Prisons and health. WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Enggist, S., Møller, L., Galea, G. and Udesen, C., (2014). Prisons and health. WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Garcia-Guasch, R., Roigé, J. and Padrós, J., (2012). Substance abuse in anaesthetists. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology, 25(2), pp.204-209.
Hanson, G., Venturelli, P. and Fleckenstein, A., (2011). Drugs and society. Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Jewkes, Y., Crewe, B. and Bennett, J. eds., (2016). Handbook on prisons. Routledge.
Kanayama, G., Hudson, J.I. and Pope Jr, H.G., (2012). Culture, psychosomatics and substance abuse: The example of body image drugs. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 81(2), p.73.
Kasunic, A. and Lee, M.A., (2014). Societal burden of substance abuse. International Public Health Journal, 6(3), p.269.
Kemp, A.R., (2016). Abuse in society: An introduction. Waveland Press.
Kupatadze, A., (2014). Prisons, politics and organized crime: The case of Kyrgyzstan. Trends in organized crime, 17(3), pp.141-160.
Mai, C. and Subramanian, R., (2017). The Price of Prisons. Vera Institute of Justice.
Mayhew, H. and Binny, J., (2011). The criminal prisons of London: And scenes of prison life. Cambridge University Press.
Messina, N., Grella, C.E., Cartier, J. and Torres, S., (2010). A randomized experimental study of gender-responsive substance abuse treatment for women in prison. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 38(2), pp.97-107.
Muntingh, L., (2008). Punishment and deterrence: Don’t expect prisons to reduce crime. SA Crime Quarterly, 2008(26), pp.3-9.
Nellis, A., (2016). The color of justice: Racial and ethnic disparity in state prisons.
Neminski, M., (2014). The professionalization of crime: how prisons create more criminals. The Journal of Core Curriculum, 23, pp.81-92.
Phillips, L.A., (2010). Substance abuse and prison recidivism: Themes from qualitative interviews. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 31(1), pp.10-24.
Rafter, N., (2017). Partial justice: Women, prisons and social control. Routledge.
Sahu, K.K. and Sahu, S., (2012). Substance abuse causes and consequences. Bangabasi Academic Journal, 9, pp.52-59.
Sarchiapone, M., Carli, V., Giannantonio, M.D. and Roy, A., (2009). Risk factors for attempting suicide in prisoners. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39(3), pp.343-350.
Spelman, W., (2008). Specifying the relationship between crime and prisons. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24(2), pp.149-178.
VanDeMark, N.R., (2007). Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 2(1), pp.1-11.
Wacquant, L.J., (2009). Prisons of poverty (Vol. 23). U of Minnesota Press.
Waldron, H.B. and Turner, C.W., (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), pp.238-261.
Zarshenas, L., Baneshi, M., Sharif, F. and Sarani, E.M., (2017). Anger management in substance abuse based on cognitive behavioral therapy: An interventional study. BMC psychiatry, 17(1), pp.1-5.