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Human Resource-value and Contribution to Organizational Success

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Introduction

Organization needs human resources and managing this human resource is a tough task. Competent leaders try to make existing human resource to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Motivational and organizational theories and studies help human resource managers to take effective decisions. Over the past few years’ different dimensions have been added to human resource management. Employee development is the aim of recent human resource development. Experience and skilled employee are the resource of organization and making them worth to the organization ensures broader achievement of the organization.

Importance of organizational design theory in the context of organizational structure and fulfilling organizational strategy, using specific organizational examples

Organizational design is a process by which managers select and manage different aspects and components of organizational structure and culture so that organization can control the activities necessary to achieve its goals. Organizational design is all about using the workforce and management to achieve organizational goals and objectives. The main aim of organizational deign is to use the workforce and the management in a utmost efficient manner so that organization can achieve its desired goal and objectives. Making a better organizational design, organization may be able to achieve organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Organization design theory deals with four basic components

Leadership

To lead an organization, it is foremost to lead the employee of the organization. if proper leadership is not ensured by the organization, it would not be possible to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Leaders have to deal with different consequences. Visionary leader designs the organization toward better achievement and efficiency (Fernandes, 2013). Changes are needed to adopt the organization to with modern days. Modern world is changing rapidly and to cope with modern world, organizations have to change its operations, management and decisions time to time. So while developing organizational design, the role of leadership should be kept in mind.

Decision making

Decision making is the heart of the organization. Policies are the combination of decisions. Proper decisions taken by the organization can make an organization to the apex of success. Leaders and managers of an organization have to take decisions time to time. In the scenario Coca cola CEO had taken some decisions which increased profits of that time and some decisions were taken for which Coca cola had to count loss. So taking proper decision at the right place is very important which is included in organizational design.

People

People or workforce of the organization or more specifically, the stakeholder of the organization is the life blood of any organization. Employees of the organization shape the organization. Efficient and skilled worker produce quality products and services and quality products and services attract customers and it also bring out reputation which is the key things of success. So, people do matter for the success and failure of an organization. Organization should design the organization in a way which ensures satisfaction for the people and along with this it should also ensures progress of the organization.

Work Processes and systems

Work process and systems are the most important components while dealing with organizational design. Organization is run by sophisticated plans and programs. Proper planning and implementation is the precondition of the success of the organization. If Organization’s work process and systems are according to the plans, it would reach its destination. Tesco is a grocery retailer which has a sophisticated work processes and system and for that it is run smoothly.

To cope with modern time different organizations redesign their organizational structures and work process. Change is needed for the organization for time to time but changes are resisted primarily. Before bringing about changes, organizational redesign may required to achieve organizational goals and objectives.

So, on the basis of the above discussion, it can be said that organizational design consists of different important aspects. Organization should be design in such a way which drives the organization toward achieving its visions, mission and goals. Designing and organization should include inclusive decisions. Without setting proper work process, employee development, motivation, leadership and implementing organizations plans and programs, it could be difficult to achieve desired goals and objectives of the organization. Organizational designs which operates all the components of the organization in a rhythm, is the successful organization (Kondalkar, 2017).

How organizational design has to respond and adapt to change management and the relationship that exists between the two using a specific organizational situation

Organizational design has to response and adapts to change management. If the existing structure and the process of the organization are not compatible to the organizational design of the organization, it might be difficult to bring about any change in to the organization.

In organizational design leadership is very important to implement any change in the organization. Bringing change into an organization is not so easy because change is resisted at the first time and change need to be adapted which takes some times. Employee of the organization is important to bring about any decision. It is wiser to include the stakeholder before bringing any major change into the organization.

When designing the organizational structure and working procedure, it should be kept in mind that some predictable changes may brought about in this organization. Organization design of an organization includes employee recruitment system, employee development and monitoring system, evaluation and innovation into the organization (Rudman, 2018). These include organizational design. Tesco is a brand of retail seller of grocery products in many different countries in the world. It has a specific organizational structure which can adapt change into its workforce. Recently Tesco is selling clothing items in different shops across UK. Launching clothing products faced resistance in different levels but effective leadership and efficient organizational designs avoids those complications and Tesco is getting good responses from its clothing item. From the scenarios we have come to know that Coca which is one of the top ranked soft drinks brand in the world was faced complexities in initiating policy related changes into its organization. some changes sees success for example for good expert of its head office, it produced universal beverage items for the people across the world without stressing regional products. Which was good decision and Coca cola had received good profits.

Close relation exists between organizational design and change management. Organizational design or organizational structure do matter in change manage because changes are implemented within the organization. We can explain how the components of organizational designs influence changes in the organization

Leadership: Leadership is the most important component of organizational design and change is initiated by the leader. If leader is not visionary and unable to take decision required for the organization, it would be difficult to bring about any kinds of change within the organization. Changes go through three steps Freezing, Unfreezing and refreezing. Leader plays the role to unfreezing which deals with campaigning in favour of upcoming changes.

Power and authority: If there is serious imbalance between the power and authority, it would be difficult to implement change within the organization.

Organizational culture: Organizational culture and context is one of the main facts of organizational design which influence changes within the organization. If there is a culture of taking change or adopting change in the organization, it is easier to implement change but if there is gap of communication and lack of understanding among different actors of the organization, it might be difficult to bring about positive change into the organization (Yoder, 2011).

It can be perceived from the above discussion that change and organizational design goes hand to hand and one influence other. As modern world is changing so fast, different organizations have to bring positive change into their organizations, so organizational design should be compatible to any productive changes within the organization. Organizational culture, role of different agents, power and authority, organization’s mission and vision influence managing changes into the organization.

Different approaches and techniques used for attracting, maintaining developing and rewarding human resources to create a skilled and dedicated workforce

There are different approaches and techniques used for attracting, maintaining developing and rewarding human resources to create and experienced and dedicated human resources for the organization. People do not work for nothing, in fact people always tent to maximise their self interest and organization also try to maximise its self interest using its employees. Organizations try to balance between the organizational interest and employee’s interest so that both can be benefited. Different motivational approaches and techniques are used in different organization for rewarding man power to create skilled and dedicated workforce.

Motivation: Motivation is something which makes people to do work eagerly or in short motivation is inspiration to do something.

There are mainly two types of motivation

Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivation refers that kind of motivation which comes from one’s mind or it could be defined as self motivation. When the source of motivation is the individual himself, it is called Intrinsic Motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes itself suddenly, No one do not need to instigate the individual to be motivated (Kondalkar, 2017).

Extrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic motivation is that kind of motivation when source of motivation is another individual or things. Extrinsic motivation is used by the organization to motivate its workforce. Tesco used extrinsic motivation theory on its employee for example it set different targets for its employee and if they can achieve those targets, employees gets chance to be promoted, get opportunity to take tour package and so on.

Motivation theories

There are two types of motivation theories which explains why individuals get motivated to achieve something.

Content Theories: Content theories deals with the contents which motivate individuals. Some of the prominent content theories are

Source: Leighton, P. 2009

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory

Source: Leonard, D. 2012

Maslow categorises all the need of man into five stages which maintain a hierarchy among them. At the bottom of the need hierarchy pyramid, there lie physiological needs. Physiological needs means basic needs for instance need for safe work place need for health care, need for a basic salary etc. these are the physiological needs. After fulfilling physiological needs people try to fulfil safety needs which includes job security, avoiding exploitations etc. After fulfilling safety needs people try to fulfil social needs which include need for loves and belongings, need for being cooperated etc. at number four there lies esteem needs which includes to be honoured, to become hold honourable position etc. at the last stage people try to fulfil need of self actualisation which includes consuming luxury goods. 

Hygiene theory: According to Herzberg’s Hygiene theory two factors are liable for motivation. One is motivator factors and another is hygiene factors. In the presence of hygiene factors people do not get motivated but in absence of hygiene factors people get motivated. Motivator factors motivate people.

Process theories: Process theories are those theories which deals with how individual get motivated. Some prominent process theories are ERG theory, Equity theory, Goal setting theory, Expectancy theory etc.

Equity theory: According to equity theory individual compare himself or herself and his or her position with other people of his or her organization and other organization. For example if sell representative of Tesco compare himself with Agora and finds unequal salary, he may be get motivated to get the salary.

Goal setting theory: According to goal setting theory of motivation, gaol should be SMART. People get motivated by proper gaols setting and goal should be specific, measurable, achievable, and realistic and time bound. If goals are being set up individuals get motivated to achieve those goals and objectives.

How motivation can be harnessed to support competitive advantage and issues associated with low levels of motivation

Proper motivation among the employee of an organization, gives competitive advantages to the organization. for example if all the employee of the organization  get motivated and try heart and soul to achieve the targeted work, organization can achieve the targeted work within short time and with highest efficiency because when people work from their heart, quality of work increased (Oliver, 2012).

research on the use contemporary knowledge and research to support emerging HR developments

A research has been conducted on the contemporary development in human resource development in different organization in different context to gather information and knowledge. To conduct this research various research works has been gone through and primary data has also been collected to fulfil the aim of the research.

Definition of the Issue: Investigating Emerging HR developments and creating knowledge on the gathered information and analysis.

Hypothesis: Some positive changes have been taken by different organizations across the globe which increased efficiency of the human resource department.

Methods of data gathering: Data have been collected from different secondary sources of data to conduct this research. A case has been studied to investigate those emerging HR developments which increase organizational efficiency.

Development of an analysis plan: Different qualitative and qualitative tools have been used to analysis gathered data on emerging HR development across the globe. Different diagram, graph, chart has been used to present data and on the basis of collected data information and knowledge has been created which would be useful for further development in the field of human resource development studies and it would be helpful for better human resource development plans.

Data collection: Data has been collected from different primary and secondary sources of data by questionnaire and interview methods. While collecting data, it has been tried to ensure neutral stands of the respondents.

Sample: The author have taken interview of 30 head of different organizations. And the heads of the organizations has been provided questionnaire which has been mentioned below.

Questionnaire

  1. What is the process of employee recruitment in your organization
  2. What is the process of employee training process of your organization
  3. What do you do for increasing employee efficiency
  4. What motivation techniques are you using for motivating the employee of your organization
  5. What are the new techniques and innovations in your organization in HR practice
  6. How the salary and incentives are paid to the employee
  7. Is your employee evaluation system effective? Yes/No
  8. What performance management system have you introduced in your organization?
  9. What he leadership techniques are more effective according to your leaders and manager?
  10. Do you use technology based management system in your organization.


Data analysis

From number one question of the questionnaire, among 30 of the heads of the organizations 25 CEOs come up with the answer that they are using online based recruitment and screening system.

Among 30 organizations most of the organizations use on the job training, of the job training and foundation training facilities of their organizations.

For increasing efficiency of the employee 22 organizations uses target bases or goal setting motivation techniques to motivate their employee. For example Tesco sets daily targets for their stores and give incentives on the selling.

Most of the organizations uses software based payment system which decreases extra costs and time and increased efficiency.

Among 30 organizations, 20 have proper software based evaluation system and it is found effective that all the previous records of the employee performance is recorded by specialized software which is effective for apprising the employee performance.

Major Findings from the research: Some of the major findings of the research are

  1. Technology based online recruitment system helps the organization to cut of extra cost related to employee recruitment and it is found effective.
  2. Employees payment and incentives is paid by software based system which increases the efficiency of the management
  3. Data and information about employees and performance are kept recorded which creates knowledge
  4. Technology based performance management system helps the organization to take effective decisions.

Conclusion

It is worth mentioning that science and technology has changed the human resource management radically and it is made the process more transparent and cost effective.

Conclusion

Managing people is always challenging and unpredictable because people behaviour cannot be controlled properly. Organizational design is important for the development of that particular organization. As world is being changed so fast, organizations have to be changed along with it. Business organizations have to be adopted with new technologies. If organizational design is effective, changes could be brought about easily. Organizational culture does matter to implement changes. Organization’s structure, management system, mission, vision and objectives design organization and these elements influence to bring change. Different development initiatives have been taken in the field of HR and it is found from the research that technology based developments have been occurred in HR management.

References

Belloc, H. (2010). On. [Place of publication not identified]: Nabu Press.

Bratton, J., Grint, K. and Nelson, D. (2015). Organizational leadership. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.

Fernandes, A. (2013). The contribution of technology to added value. London: Springer.

Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. and Johnson, D. (2017). Management of organizational behavior. New Delhi: Pearson India Education Services.

Kondalkar, V. (2017). Organizational behaviour. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers.

Kuk, L., Banning, J. and Amey, M. (2010). Positioning student affairs for sustainable change. Sterling, Va.: Stylus Pub.

Leighton, P. (2009). Effective recruitment. London: Thorogood.

Leonard, D. (2012). Learning theories, A to Z. Westport, Conn.: Oryx Press.

Malizia, P., Cannavale, C. and Maimone, F. (2014). Evolution of the post-bureaucratic organization.

Oliver, P. (2012). Recruitment, selection, and retention of law enforcement officers.

Orrick, W. (2014). Recruitment, retention, and turnover of police personnel. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas.

Richardson, J. (2012). Business ethics 1112. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Roberts, G. (2013). Recruitment and selection. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.

Rudman, R. (2018). Performance planning and review. Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Schwartz, M. and Harris, H. (2014). Contribution of fiction to organizational ethics. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Yoder, D. (2011). Personnel management and industrial relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

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