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Impacts of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Human Health

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The Impacts of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Human Health in Canada

Abstract

Climate change is one of the most important issues confronting the globe today, given present levels of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The severity of these consequences will be determined in part by the severity of national effort to ameliorate climate crisis by shifting the world’s over-reliance on fossil fuels for energy, transportation, and industry to renewable energies. The transport of people today is the main reason for oil consumption globally, the source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions which have grown the most worrying thing is that 30% of Greenhouse gas emission. 

Chapter 1

 1.0 Introduction

Increasing investment in infrastructure, urbanization, with modernization results in inefficient use of environmental assets, catastrophic events, contamination, and an irreversible imbalance of the earth’s structure(Zheng & Peng, 2021). One of humankind’s significant problems is the pollution of the environment caused by GHGs emissions, mainly that of the air, primarily driven by humans. Vehicle emissions are a topic of great importance in the world’s large cities, not only because of the damage they cause to health but also because of their effects on the environment. GHGs, which include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are thought to be the principal human-caused cause of climate change. One in every seven Canadian fatalities is caused by particles from fossil fuels, which further allow viruses to infiltrate our systems. Carbon dioxide is the largest element of the alteration, accounting for over 75% of worldwide emissions as a consequence of coal combustion(Jauhari et al., 2016).

The main GHGs are the component and mixture of Water vapor, CO2, methane (CH4), ozone (O3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and halocarbon families of the synthetic compound. Changes in GHGs concentrations in the atmosphere have an impact on the transparency of the atmosphere to incoming heat. Individual GHGs range in their ability to trap heat, with the majority being stronger than CO2. CO2, on the other hand, is by far the most plentiful GHG.  

Economic growth is frequently blamed for environmental degradation, assuming that higher production in the economy increases pollution levels. The effects of economic growth on the environment have been investigated numerous times previously, with varying outcomes. One of the main problems in the environmental and business field is the loss or degradation of natural resources that compromises the generation of social and economic satisfiers. It is essential to know the primary sources of contamination of the soil resource and the difference between contaminated soil and a disrupted one.

In addition to water vapor (Heard et al., 2017). The accumulation of GHGs in the atmosphere has decreased heat loss to space, resulting in a great impact on the process of global warming.  Polluted air is the 5th largest cause of mortality globally, killing more people than influenza, road deaths, starvation, and alcohol combined. Globally, exposure to air pollution decreases life expectancy by 20 months at least. According to a new study, polluted air is reducing Canadian average lifespan by even more than 3 months. Increasing the size of the Emissions Reduction Fund in order to accomplish more carbon reduction the government of Canada have already taken different steps.

In collaborating with different foreign partners, including US to find out industry standards, improving accurate measurements and going to report, as well as drive reduced cutbacks in the industry(Quayson, 2018).  Constructing a process to minimize methane leaks from across wider Canadian economy in assistance of the Global Natural gas Vow as well as the objectives in Canada’s climate agreement. This study will focus on methane and carbon dioxide emissions and their impact on human health.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

Economic expansion is commonly blamed for environmental deterioration, with the premise that more economic production leads to higher pollution levels. The impact of economic expansion on the environment has been studied many times before, with various results.  Air pollution have the negative impacts on human health negatively, and there have a severe impact of sensitive social group and local people specially on the health of elderly and young children.

Due to the urbanization process and accelerating of vehicles for the development of the transportation have a severe environmental degradation of air quality(Lattanzio, 2014). The rise of the industrial air pollutant has forced on the life of people, different diseases have permanently affected on the body of people. The loss or deterioration of natural resources, which jeopardizes the development of social and economic satisfaction, is one of the most serious issues in the environmental and commercial fields. It is critical to understand the fundamental sources of soil resource pollution as well as the difference between polluted and disturbed soil. Thus, environmental pollution is defined as the presence of undesired chemicals in the atmosphere, water, or soil, in varying amounts, times, and conditions. They have a tremendous impact on people’s health and well-being.

1.2 Rational of the Study

The employment of economic tools that can incentivize economic agents to invest in the protection and conservation of natural resources is a technique for permanently regulating the economic activities of enterprises in terms of the development of unfavorable environmental consequences on the air.  The planet is already experiencing substantial warming, which is a severe issue given the different predicted climatic implications on natural systems, as well as on humans and their environments.

Environmental pollution is the presence in the atmosphere, water or soil, of undesirable substances, in concentrations, time, and circumstances. They can significantly affect the health and well-being of people. A strategy to permanently regulate the economic activities of companies in terms of the generation of adverse environmental impacts on the air is the use of economic instruments that can encourage economic agents to invest in the protection and conservation of natural resources. Significant excess mortality rates are associated to fossil energy consumption, since burning pollutants from transportation, electric generation, and industry generally occur in dense areas

1.4 Objectives of the study

This study connected the dots between air pollution and human health, as we all know that health is an economic indicator. If the nation is healthy, the planet will grow, countries will flourish, per capita income will rise, and overall GDP and GNP (gross domestic product) and gross national product) will increase. Therefore, the contribution of this study is the analysis of human health.

1.5 Research Questions

The research questions of this paper are-

 1) How has the human-induced activities of burning fuels impacted the life expectancy of Canadians?

 2) What role has been played by the policies adopted by the government to improve and promote health and well-being of individuals?

Chapter 2

2.1 Literature Review

In North America, Canada, with the worst air quality indicators, is Methane and Carbon dioxide. The WHO has chosen Canada as one of the most polluted in North America. Canada has also made some progress in its air quality, but as of 2014, we are losing ground to other cities in the region.

In the case of Canada, the outlook for the control of toxic emissions and environmental pollution is not so encouraging; according to an air monitoring program carried out in the center of Canada, from January to July of this year, of 183 measurements that were made, 178 exceeded the guidelines recommended in 1987 by the World Health Organization in terms of particles less than 10 microns (PM10), which are composed of fine particles that easily enter the lungs through the airways(Eckelman et al., 2018).

The General Environmental Law, Law No. 28611, establishes in Article 118 of the Protection of air quality that public authorities, in the exercise of their functions and powers, adopt measures for the prevention, surveillance, environmental control and epidemiological, to ensure the conservation, improvement and recovery of air quality, as the case may be, acting as a priority in areas where alert levels are exceeded due to the presence of pollutants. Contingency plans must be applied to the prevention or mitigation of risks and damage to health and the environment.

According to Nda et al.,  (2018) after 1970 the global temperature has been risen due to the climate changes, the rapid growth of industry and production of GHGs have a serious impact that impact not only natura but also human health have also faced with the challenges of serious disease. The Emission of greenhouse gas have increased the rates of changing of ciliates in the recent decades have been assessed by the fifth assessment report. The most human induced driver in considered to be carbo dioxide and methane. It is reported that 75% of global emission due to the dominant component carbon dioxide(Johnson et al., n.d.).   

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the components of the Global carbon cycle, which includes the flow of carbon between the environment, ground, sea, and living creatures. Through the animal respiration, the process of Carbon Dioxide is occurred, that ultimately produces lots of threats in natural environment. The whole process is a serios of complex migration of gases that destroying natural environment, wild life and melting the ice. Coal, oil and natural gases as the products of fossils fuel is considered the main sources of Carbon Dioxide(Word Health Organization, 2014).

Land clearance may be accomplished by either burning trees and other vegetation, which emits CO2 instantly, or by letting chopped vegetation to degrade, which emits CO2 gradually. Another significant source is the making of cement, which includes heating limestone (calcium carbonate), the core part of concrete, in a procedure that emits CO2.

2.2 Emission of GHGs

The principal producers of CH4, a fuel GHG, are microorganisms decomposing organic materials under low-oxygen circumstances.

As a major component of atmosphere Methane also have a strong negative impact on the human health, bio diversity and nature. The fast-growing nature of Methane and Carbon Dioxide have created more problematic situation by destroying the balance of nature. Moreover, due to the rise of economic development, the crisis of fuel and oil have forced human to source the main item from fossils. The process is creating multi-dimensional problem of the human health. Different disease and patterns of various skin diseases also evolve in the recent decades. As the GHGs are destroying the Ozon layer it creating an imbalance in the nature.  Paddies from the farmers’ land and swages of different chemical are also created a amalgamate situation to retain on the current human body. The body facing a challenge of Oxygen, moreover, in most of the world megacities have fulfilled with dust and fogs(Ehigiamusoe, 2020).

Requia et al., (2017) have identified in “Carbon dioxide emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: A life-cycle analysis in eight Canadian cities” that a solution of carbon dioxide emissions may be improve through uses and reuses of the plug-in electric vehicles. The study covered the eight cities of Canada that addresses the C2O emission of Canada in comparing the national average emission. The study also focusses on the electric generation profiles. In British Columbia and Quebec 86% and 98% uses clean energy. Energy consumption have differentiated the emission of CO2(Ehigiamusoe, 2020).

The IPCC has identified various GHGs that are responsible for climate change and how people release them in a variety of ways. For example, one of the most prevalent sources is the burning of fossil fuels in automobiles, industries, and power generation. Other kinds include emissions of greenhouse gasses and grazed livestock digestive tracts, hydrocarbons used in cooling and commercial operations, nitrous oxide emissions from agro-allied products and inorganic fertilizers, and soil erosion.

Carbon dioxide is responsible for up to 75% of total world GHG emissions. Over hundreds of millions of years, the quantity of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been recognized to roughly track world temperature changes.

The continued increase of this greenhouse gases by industrial activities is sufficient to cause climate change. CO2 is constantly exchanged between the oceans and the environment, and it is absorbed and released onto the planet’s surface by animals and plants.

After nineteen century, carbon dioxide has increases and climbed from 270 (ppm) to 370 (ppm).  Methane is the second most major GHG produced into the atmosphere, and when studied molecule for molecule, it is 20 times more powerful as a GHG than CO2(Nda et al., 2018). It is mostly formed by the actions of particular microbes that flourish in the presence of humans. Other sources include plants in stagnant lakes and other bodies of water, as well as bovine mammal intestines, garbage, paddy fields, and methane once trapped under the earth from mines and gas pipes. This might account for up to one-fifth of worldwide methane emissions, resulting in 7% of total global warming.

2.3 Impact on Human Health

Human organs are being harmed by tiny particles created by burning things. More over one-seventh (13.6 %) of Canadians so over age of 14 die as a result of particulate emissions caused by fossil fuels, comparable to 13.1 percent in the United States. tiny particles are produced by burning fuel, firewood, candle, perfume, oil and gas, or anything else. Irrevocable eyesight is a danger associated with the particles. Because there is a significant flow of blood to the retina, the eyes are exposed to a particularly large number of tiny particles. In 2018, 281,000 Canadians aged 14 and up died from various causes. According to the study’s findings, particle pollution from oil and gas caused more than 38,000 premature deaths in Canada in 2018(Arawomo et al., 2018).

Fossil fuel combustion is easier to manage than other sources and precursors of tiny particles, such as dust or wildfire smoke, this is a clear message to policymakers and stakeholders to encourage a change to cleaner energy sources. Climate strategy, which includes a pledge to increase the carbon price by $15 per year until it reaches $170 per ton in 2030. It also pledged an additional $15 billion in climate-related investment. We are in charge of the climate catastrophe, with the objective of achieving “net-zero” emissions for the nation by 2050(Heard et al., 2017). However, a few realities obstruct this easy viewpoint. For example, the proposal depends on carbon capture and storage, which currently has no economically viable facilities.

2.4 Canada’s Greenhouse Emissions

Effectively decreasing methane leaks from the petroleum industry is a major aspect of Canada’s environmental strategy to minimize greenhouse gases in the petroleum sector. These improvements will enhance air quality, encourage new products to market, and assist to migrate the industry to net-zero pollutants by 2050(Heard et al., 2017).

There have already taken different steps by the Canadian government to reduces the chances of losses of GHGs, Substantial cuts would be achieved by methods including funding programs at the federal, provincial, and private market levels, putting the cost estimating decreases by 2025 within the 40–45 % scoring range. Based on activities taken to meet its 2025 petroleum & energy methane objective, the Government is adopting a portfolio of policies which also include: The Environmental and Climate Change Minister conducted a review indicating that Canada is on pace to achieve a certain objective of decreasing methane leaks from the oil and gas industry by 40–45 % by 2025.

The work done so far lays a solid platform for future efforts in lowering methane emissions. It establishes a good foundation for commencing discussions in early 2022 on new federal rules aimed at reducing oil and gas methane emissions by at least 75% by 2030. The Canadian government is also formulating a strategy to limit and reduce emissions from the oil and gas industry, adopting the Clean Fuel Standard to speed the use of cleaner fuels, and placing a price on carbon pollution until 2030(Santus Kumar Deb & Shohel Md. Nafi, 2020).

 

2.5 Responding to the increasing risk of infectious illness

In June 2021, the federal government-initiated program for methane’s reduction goal from the oil and gas industry. The paper also notes that methane emissions in Canada have been historically underestimated, according to current scientific research. While the study acknowledges Canada’s significant progress toward its 2025 goal, the government realizes that more effort is needed to generate further reductions in this area. This analysis considers current federal and provincial methane laws, which are expected to reduce emissions by 39% by 2025. It also notes that other programs and efforts, the effects of which have not been assessed in this study, are expected to result in further reductions. As a consequence, the figures in this study reflect the bare minimum of predicted emission reductions from this industry.

Chapter 3

3.1 Data Description & Model

 Research Methodology

This section explains the research methodology and research model (econometric framework)

to link health outcomes with methane and carbon dioxide (Green House gases). This section

not only reflects the choice of methodology but also highlights how different types of

variables are modeled. In this study, we are using panel data. The main response variable is

the health status and well-being of individuals

Research model

𝑙𝑒𝑖𝑡 = 𝛼0 + 𝛼1𝐺𝐷𝑃/𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑎 + 𝛼2𝐺𝐷𝑃/𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑎2 + 𝛼3𝐶𝑂2 + 𝛼4𝑀𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑒 + ɛ

Where,

𝑙𝑒 is an indicator of health for life expectancy at birth, GDP/Capita, CO2 and Methane are

indicators named as a gross domestic product, carbon dioxide emission and Methane

emission.

Hypothesis:

H0: 𝛼1 = 𝛼2 = 𝛼3 = 𝛼4 = 0

H1: Any one of the coefficients is not equal to zero

.

Data Collection

The data will be drawn from the World Development Index (WDI, 2020) of the World Bank for this analysis. For 2001-2018, this analysis employed panel data for Canada. The variable used in this research is life expectancy at birth, total (years) as a human health proxy, GDP per capita as the proxy for economic growth, carbon dioxide emission (metric tons per capita) and Methane emissions (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Some of the variables will be convertible into a logarithmic form which contributes to better results than the linear form and removes the heteroskedasticity problem. However, the data might suffer from time-lag bias and look-ahead bias.

Frequencies

  Statistics
 Life Expectancy in YearsLife Expectancy Growth Rate%Yearly GDP (Billions)GDP/CapitaGDP Growth RateCarbon Dioxide Emission (Kilotons)Carbon Dioxide Per Capita (Metric Tons)
Mean80.8537.2236841389.676840816.163.0411545125.2616.2074
Median80.9700.2600001527.990043596.003.0400547720.0015.9500
Mode79.02a.2700738.96a23821a.66a506940a15.24a
Std. Deviation1.05475.0742526388.044469881.6171.5632918319.857.67092
a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

3.2 Results

In the given figure, multiple regression was used to assess the ability of three control measures (GDP/Capita, Carbon Dioxide Per Capita (Metric Tons) to predict and identify the levels of quality of healthy life (Life Expectancy in Years,). Preliminary analyses were conducted to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity, multicollinearity and homoscedasticity. First, in the given table indicated that each variable in the regression was normally distributed, and free from univariate outliers.

Secondly, an inspection of the normal probability plot of standardized residuals as well as the scatterplot of standardized residuals against standardized predicted values indicated that the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity of residuals were met.

Thirdly, Mahalanobis distance did exceed the critical χ2 for df=2 (at α =.001) of square 17.837 for only one case in the data file, indicating that multivariate outliers were not of concern.

Fourth, relatively high tolerances for both predictors in the regression model indicated that multicollinearity would not interfere with our ability to interpret the outcome of the regression model.

    Coefficients
ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.CorrelationsCollinearity Statistics
BStd. ErrorBetaZero-orderPartialPartToleranceVIF
1(Constant)90.1262.795 32.242.000     
GDP/Capita6.418E-5.000.6016.054.000.860.834.500.6921.444
Carbon Dioxide Per Capita (Metric Tons)-.734.156-.467-4.699.000-.800-.761-.388.6921.444
a. Dependent Variable: Life Expectancy in Years

 In combination, GDP/Per Capita and Carbon Dioxide accounted for 89.1% of the variability in GDP/ Per Capita, R 2= .877, adjusted R 2= .944, F (2, 16) =65.224, p< .001) than the Carbon Dioxide Per Capita (beta = –.467, p < .001). If we could increase GDP/ Per Capita by one standard deviation, the perceived stress scores would be likely to drop by .607 standard deviation units.

3.3 Discussion

In many regions of the globe, the number of homes cooking with solid fuels is dropping. It has long been established that inhaling filthy air increases one’s risk of acquiring cardiovascular disease, severe respiratory disorders, respiratory problems, and cancer. Electricity is a key form of energy utilized in the transport industry. Electricity is required in the production of feedstock of fuel, the manufacturing of the fuel and the production of the car material and the assembly of the vehicles. Caused by human’s greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols are related with global warming and public health hazards. Globally, fossil-fuel-related emissions account for around 65 percent of the increased mortality, and 70 % of the climatic cooling by atmospheric emissions(Lattanzio, 2014). Air pollution has a considerable contributor to excess mortality from cardiac, pulmonary, and other disorders.  

The GDP per capita coefficients expect to positively impact the population’s life expectancy. An increase in GDP per capita indicates improvement in the standard of living, facilitating the ease of access to healthcare facilities, thus increasing the life expectancy. However, the carbon and Methane emissions coefficients can impact the dependent variable negatively. The emissions reduce the air quality and cause environmental degradation, which implies that bad air quality contributes to poor quality of life for the population. One can achieve good air quality with the commitment and active participation of all the participants involved; state, company and population. It is the government’s responsibility to implement the necessary measures to guarantee compliance with crucial environmental management instruments such as Environmental Quality Standards (ECA), Maximum Permissible Limits (LMP), Action Plans, among others(Heard et al., 2017).On the contrary, the presence of pollutants above the levels established in the ECAs not only means a decrease in the environmental quality of the air but also a decrease in the quality of life of the population, with adverse effects on their health, as well as the landscape deterioration of Canada.

Methane (CH4) is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that is the primary flammable gas, Methane (H4) contributes for over 13% of Canada’s total GHG emissions, where the oil and gas industry responsible for roughly 40% of the country’s methane leaks(Arawomo et al., 2018).

The Government of Canada pledged in 2016 to a nationwide reduction in methane emissions from Canada’s top polluting industry, oil and gas, of 40% to 45 percent below 2012 levels by 2025. Several federal and provincial initiatives have been taken to promote Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. Canadian government and the governments of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan signed equivalency agreements to allow regionally differentiated methods to methane reduction in their separate oil and gas industries while assuring comparable environmental results.

For much of human history our predecessors depended on relatively simple sources of energy: people power, animals’ tissue and the combustion of feedstock such as timber or grain. However, the Industrialization liberated a whole new form of energy: fossil fuels. Advancement that has followed. Coal and oil (lignite, petroleum, gasoline) have, and remain to, play a significant role for global power generation. And they also come with several adverse repercussions. When burnt they create carbon dioxide (CO2) and are the main cause of climatic change. They are also a significant source to local air pollution, which is believed to related to millions of early mortalities annually.

Since 2005, emission patterns have been similar with prior editions of the inventory. The development of Canada’s yearly greenhouse gas inventory is based on the notion of continuous improvement. Significant technique enhancements are being introduced in this version of the NIR (methane emissions from landfills) and will be applied in the edition published in 2022(Ehigiamusoe, 2020). (fugitive methane emissions from upstream oil and gas). The improved methodologies make advantage of Canadian-specific research and information, make new scientific data easier to implement. The improved climate plan is estimated to lower Canada’s emissions by at least 85 million tonnes if completely implemented, allowing Canada to surpass its existing 2030 goal. Canada may aim for a range of 32-40% below 2005 levels in collaboration with provinces and territories, as well as the business sector and others, and the Government of Canada is committed to submitting a revised Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)Action.

Chapter 4

4.01 Recommendation

To resolve and mitigate the effects of GHGs through minimizing the amount of Carbon Dioxide and Methane the following measures can ensure a better environment and secure a better future.

4.1 Sourcing Eco-friendly Energy

Uses of solar power and wind power are considered for developing the current situation of atmosphere degradation. The emission of CH2 and CH4 have to reduce to the expected rate though taking different initiatives. Uses of wind turbine have to increase to a high level, as near about 6% of Canada’s electricity demands are sourced from wind turbine. In December, 2019, wind turbine capacity was more than 13400 MW. In Canada, the uses of wind turbined will be fulfilled 20% of country electricity by 2025 (Eckelman et al., 2018). Almost 40% or 2663 total turbine in Canada has in the Ontario. In Quebec there are 30% of turbine with the total numbers 1991. Alberta has also 900 wind turbines. Solar has become much more affordable and effective than wind generators; power is supplied by panels using light-sensitive semiconductors.

4. 2 Transportation in the Green Development

The transport industry is one of the quickest growing sources to carbon dioxide emissions from all form of automobiles with 2.5 percent yearly worldwide growth and 7.5 percent in Asia where vehicle sales is snowballing. To lower the quantity of CO2 emissions by automobiles, there must be a move from the traditional cities design to resilient urban mass transportation systems. Other ways of lowering CO2 emissions produced by transportation include by walking or cycling to short distances rather than using automobiles, carpooling and usage of a most energy car(Ehigiamusoe, 2020).

4.3 Widespread of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

Renewable and sustainable energy can save the human health from burning of fuels and destroying atmosphere.  The study of Requia et al., (2017) have given a solution of emission of greenhouse gases impacts on human health. To decrease the greenhouses gas to emission could be a solution through uses of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Uses of electric vehicle may have a significant toles on society, economy, environment and human health. Study showed that, potential reduction of CO2 emission effects on human health.  Fossil fuels produce 95% energy in Alberta that emits a high sequence CHGs(Babadjouni et al., 2017).

Through the changes of the government policies can reduce a huge amount of GHGs to impact on human health. Another major solution can bring the success to reduce the amount of GHGs as direct investment in EV incentives across Canada. Government incentives for production of battery electric car can provoke to reduce the emission of CO2 and CO4 from range of plug-in hybrid EVs ranging from $2,500-$7,500(Johnson et al., n.d.). Moreover, the recycle uses of this EVs and government promotional strategy can improve the emission of CO2 to reduce. Such uses of the renewable electric generation may be a best solution to save human health and reduces the impacts of GHGs.

4.4 Development of green building

The present structures where we live and traveling generate some sort of because of the dependence on fossil fuels to power the daily necessity equipment. Using energy efficient light bulbs, cooling and heating equipment aids in lowering down the amount of CO2 emitted from such construction projects.

Some additional types of mitigation measures to be employed are; (i)Trimming trash created from residences, those trash (junk) are dumped and buried in landfills which releases methane. (ii) Eating organic and homegrown foods, limit meat intake and eliminating processed items because a big amount of GHG emissions originate from meat and dairy manufacturing. (iii) Introduction of polluters tax, carbon taxes make polluting actions more costly and green alternatives increasingly cheap enabling fuel-efficient firms and families to save cost(Quayson, 2018).

4.5 Conclusion

Though fossil fuel energy has become a fundamental driver of the development of technological, social, economic perspectives. Canada has the most air pollution in North America, pointing out that the pollution level is six times higher than the reasonable maximum, which puts its population that lives in urban ecosystems concentrated in automotive pollution at risk of suffering from health problems. long-term. The lack of maintenance and technical inspections of vehicles; The high price of unleaded gasoline compared to leaded gasoline; Unregulated and inefficient public transportation; the presence of large numbers of inter-municipal and interprovincial terminals located in the center of Canada.

Chapter 5

5.1 Reference

Arawomo, O., Dolapo, Y., ** O., Adewale, A., & *** A. (2018). Dynamics of Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and Health Outcomes in Selected Sub-Sahara African Countries. In African Journal of Economic Review: Vol. VI.

Babadjouni, R. M., Hodis, D. M., Radwanski, R., Durazo, R., Patel, A., Liu, Q., & Mack, W. J. (2017). Clinical effects of air pollution on the central nervous system; a review. In Journal of Clinical Neuroscience (Vol. 43, pp. 16–24). Churchill Livingstone. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2017.04.028

Eckelman, M. J., Sherman, J. D., & MacNeill, A. J. (2018). Life cycle environmental emissions and health damages from the Canadian healthcare system: An economic-environmental-epidemiological analysis. PLoS Medicine, 15(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002623

Ehigiamusoe, K. U. (2020). A disaggregated approach to analyzing the effect of electricity on carbon emissions: Evidence from African countries. Energy Reports, 6, 1286–1296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2020.04.039

Heard, B. P., Brook, B. W., Wigley, T. M. L., & Bradshaw, C. J. A. (2017). Burden of proof: A comprehensive review of the feasibility of 100% renewable-electricity systems. In Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Vol. 76, pp. 1122–1133). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.114

Jauhari, H., Dewata Dr, E., Lestari Zainal Ridho, S., & Miskiyah, N. (2016). Renewable Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth in Indonesia. 29–36. https://doi.org/10.5220/0008436500290036

Johnson, C. M., Corazzini, K. N., & Shaw, R. (n.d.). Assessing the Feasibility of Using Virtual Environments in Distance Education. In An International Journal (Vol. 3, Issue 1).

Lattanzio, R. K. (2014). Canadian Oil Sands: Life-Cycle Assessments of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. www.crs.gov

Nda, M., Adnan, M. S., Ahmad, K. A., Usman, N., Razi, M. A. M., & Daud, Z. (2018). A review on the causes, effects and mitigation of climate changes on the environmental aspects. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 10(4), 169–175. https://doi.org/10.30880/ijie.2018.10.04.027

Quayson, F. O. (2018). The Feasibility of Establishing A Private International Virtual High School In Ghanathe-feasibility-of-establishing-a-private-international-virtual-high-school-in-ghana. 1(1). https://www.ijareonline.com/the-feasibility-of-establishing-a-private-international-virtual-high-school-in-ghana/

Santus Kumar Deb, & Shohel Md. Nafi. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Tourism: Recovery Proposal for Future Tourism. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 33(4).

Word Health Organization. (2014). Gender, climate change and health. World Health Organization (WHO).

Zheng, G., & Peng, Z. (2021). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of BEV’s environmental benefits for meeting the challenge of ICExit (Internal Combustion Engine Exit). Energy Reports, 7, 1203–1216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2021.02.039

 

Chapter 6

6.1 Appendices

Frequencies

Statistics
 Life Expectancy in YearsLife Expectancy Growth Rate%Yearly GDP (Billions)GDP/CapitaGDP Growth RateCarbon Dioxide  Emission  (Kilotons)Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons)Methane
NValid191919191919190
Missing000000019
Mean80.8537.2236841389.676840816.163.0411545125.2616.20737 
Median80.9700.2600001527.990043596.003.0400547720.0015.95000 
Mode79.02a.2700738.96a23821a.66a506940a15.240a 
Std. Deviation1.05475.0742526388.044469881.6171.5632918319.857.670918 
a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown
Descriptive Statistics
 MeanStd. DeviationN
Life Expectancy in Years80.85371.0547519
GDP/Capita40816.169881.61719
Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons)16.2074.6709219
Correlations
 Life Expectancy in YearsGDP/CapitaCarbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons)
Pearson CorrelationLife Expectancy in Years1.000.860-.800
GDP/Capita.8601.000-.555
Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons)-.800-.5551.000
Sig. (1-tailed)Life Expectancy in Years..000.000
GDP/Capita.000..007
Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons).000.007.
NLife Expectancy in Years191919
GDP/Capita191919
Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons)191919
Variables Entered/Removeda
ModelVariables EnteredVariables RemovedMethod
1Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons), GDP/Capitab.Enter
a. Dependent Variable: Life Expectancy in Years
b. All requested variables entered.
Model Summaryb
ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate
1.944a.891.877.36981
a. Predictors: (Constant), Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons), GDP/Capita
b. Dependent Variable: Life Expectancy in Years
ANOVAa
ModelSum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.
1Regression17.83728.91865.214.000b
Residual2.18816.137  
Total20.02518   
a. Dependent Variable: Life Expectancy in Years
b. Predictors: (Constant), Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons), GDP/Capita
Coefficientsa
ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.CorrelationsCollinearity Statistics
BStd. ErrorBetaZero-orderPartialPartToleranceVIF
1(Constant)90.1262.795 32.242.000     
GDP/Capita6.418E-5.000.6016.054.000.860.834.500.6921.444
Carbon Dioxide  PerCapita (Metric Tons)-.734.156-.467-4.699.000-.800-.761-.388.6921.444
a. Dependent Variable: Life Expectancy in Years
Residuals Statisticsa
 MinimumMaximumMeanStd. DeviationN
Predicted Value79.300281.942780.8537.9954619
Std. Predicted Value-1.5611.094.0001.00019
Standard Error of Predicted Value.105.224.144.03019
Adjusted Predicted Value79.205281.998180.8490.9967619
Residual-.46691.51893.00000.3486619
Std. Residual-1.2631.403.000.94319
Stud. Residual-1.3221.474.0051.03019
Deleted Residual-.56383.57249.00472.4175819
Stud. Deleted Residual-1.3561.535.0081.04719
Mahal. Distance.4915.6371.8951.25719
Cook’s Distance.001.204.068.06119
Centered Leverage Value.027.313.105.07019
a. Dependent Variable: Life Expectancy in Years

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